Depending on the selected mode, XPSWMM provides different options for networks with multiple conduits and diversion links depending on the selected layer mode. The following subsections describe the use of multiple conduit and diversion link data in the Hydraulics (Hdr), Runoff (Rnf), and Sanitary (San) layers.  


A diversion or a multiple conduit in the Hydraulics layer is a special type of link called a Multilink. It is shown in the network as a dashed line. A diversion is used to divert sanitary sewage out of the storm drainage system or to relieve the storm load on sanitary interceptors. In the Hydraulics layer, all diversions are assumed to take place at a node and are handled as inter-nodal transfers.

Multiple conduits may be entered by enabling the Conduit check box and entering an appropriate name. These conduits are fully described in the section on Single Conduit Link Data.

NOTE: All conduits and/or diversions within a Multilink must flow Parallel to one another.

The Hydraulics layer supports five different types of diversions:

Pumps

Orifices

Weirs - Side and Transverse

Special - Structures including Regulators, Bendable Weirs, Internal Rating Curves

ONLY the conduit uses the Name entered in this dialog. The pump, orifice, weir and special conduit do NOT use this name.

The Plot radio button allows you to plot across Pump, Weir and Orifice diversions by specifying a length for the diversions. This length is used for plotting profiles and in the Dynamic Plan View. Select the Plot radio button corresponding to a row of diversions. Click on the Plot button to open the following dialog:

Select the diversion type to be plotted and enter the length be used in plots.

Links can be converted by right-clicking on the highlighted link and selecting the link type from the pop-up menu. Single links can also be converted to Multilinks using the Dual Drainage Batch Converter, located under the Tools menu. When converting a single link to a Multilink in this way, all conduit factors will be replicated in Row 1 of the Multilink dialog. 

Print Flow Details

This flag is used to select detailed printout for this location. The detailed printout is a time series of the conduit's hydraulic properties at a regular time interval and will be located in the output file after a model has been run. The time interval is controlled as a factor of time steps in the Hydraulics Mode->Job Control->Output Control: Summary Interval value. This option should be used sparingly as it can generate a large amount of output. It should only be used for debugging particularly complex networks, or to create a time series file to link to another application.

With this flag is enabled and using the configuration parameter EXTERNAL_CSV a file named "yourfile.csv" will be created containing the time series and the time series will not be found in the output file. Where yourfile is the name of your modeling project. This file contains the Time, Flow, Velocity, X-section Area, Hydraulic Radius, Head at the Upstream Junction, Head at the Downstream Junction, Elevation at the Upstream End of the Conduit, the Elevation at the Downstream End of the Conduit and, the Volume of Water in the Link. This file is comma-delimited and is suitable for input to a spreadsheet.

Plot Flow History

A flag to control line-printer style graphical presentation of hydrographs and depths. Review Results is a much-preferred alternative to this option.

Save Results for Review

Save results for the conduit for later graphical post-processing. This option is provided locally for conduit node to allow minimizing of the intermediate results files generated, which can be quite large. This flag is over-ridden by the Save ALL Results for Review flag in Job Control.

A diversion in the Runoff layer is a special type of link object shown in a network as a dashed line. This special link dialog is used to enter multiple conduits and/or conduits with orifices and/or conduits with weirs between the same pair of nodes.

In Runoff, a weir or orifice is a modification to the outflow characteristics of a modelled channel. The weir/orifice is a control structure attached to the bottom end of the conduit. Runoff supports two different types of diversions:

Conduits with an OrificeIf this flag is set a unique name must be entered for the conduit. In Runoff, an orifice is a control structure at the downstream end of a conduit.

Conduits with WeirsIf this flag is set a unique name must be entered for the conduit. In Runoff, a weir is a control structure at the downstream end of a conduit.

Multiple conduits may be entered by enabling the Conduit check box and entering an appropriate name (up to 10 alpha-numeric characters). These conduits are fully described in the section on Single Conduit Link Data.

Runoff mode uses a non-linear reservoir method of conduit routing. Flow routing is performed by coupling the continuity equation with Manning's equation to produce a non-linear reservoir; the procedure is entirely analogous to that for overland flow. Since the conduit acts as a reservoir with water surface parallel to the invert, inflows are automatically "distributed" along its length. This may lead to considerable flattening of a hydrograph peak when routed through a cascade of conduits. No backwater effects can be simulated.

If groundwater is simulated then the stored channel water may affect the groundwater flow via the tailwater flow equation. Open conduits such as trapezoidal, parabolic, and natural sections also lose water through evaporation.

Runoff print control parameters for a conduit.

 

Print Inflows and Concentrations (M3 - IPRNT)

Print total inflows to the channel/pipe and the outflow concentrations. All printed values are instantaneous at the end of the preceding time step. Zero flows are omitted to avoid voluminous output in long simulations.

Print Outflows and Concentrations (M3 - IPRNT)

Print total outflows to the channel/pipe and the outflow concentrations. All printed values are instantaneous at the end of the preceding time step. Zero flows are omitted to avoid voluminous output in long simulations.

Print Conduit Depths (M4 - MDEEP)

This flag will output flow depths for the conduit.

Save Results for Review

Save results for the conduit for later graphical post-processing. This option is provided locally for conduit node to allow minimizing of the intermediate results files generated, which can be quite large. This flag is over-ridden by the Save ALL Results for Review flag in Job Control.

A diversion in the Sanitary layer is a special type of link object shown in a network as a dashed line. This special link dialog is used to enter multiple conduits and/or conduits with orifices and/or conduits with weirs between the same pair of nodes.

The Sanitary layer supports two different types of diversions:

PumpIf the pump flag is set a unique name must be also be entered for the pump, in addition to the pump data. The pump data is not shared with that from Hydraulics layer (mode) and is also simplified. However, the pump flag is shared.

Weirs. If the weir flag is set a unique name must be entered. The weir data is not shared with that from the Hydraulics layer and is also simplified. However, the weir flag is shared.

Multiple conduits may be entered by enabling the Conduit check box and entering an appropriate name (up to 10 alpha-numeric characters). These conduits are fully described in the section on Single Conduit Link Data.


Print Channel Depths 

This flag causes printout of maximum flow depths for this conduit

Print Input Hydrographs and Pollutographs 

This flag causes printout of input (at the upstream end) hydrographs and pollutographs for this conduit.

Print Output Hydrographs and Pollutographs

This flag causes printout of output (at the downstream end) hydrographs and pollutographs for this conduit.

Suppress Printed Output of Parabolic, Power and Natural Channels

This flag suppresses printed output of normalized cross-section properties and the data echo of input data for Parabolic, Power and Natural Channels.

Save Results for Review

Save results for the conduit for later graphical post-processing. This option is provided locally for conduit node to allow minimizing of the intermediate results files generated, which can be quite large. This flag is over-ridden by the Save ALL Results for Review flag in Job Control.