In this tutorial, you will learn the following:

Using a Template

In this example, you are going to create the new project using a template. The template will contain the following data:

  • Rainfall intensity data for the 2 yr ARI
  • XP table definitions
  • Spatial report definitions
  1. Go to the Start menu and open XPRafts.
  2. Select Create from Template from the Open File window as shown.


  3. Click OK, and browse for the folder to save the model file. 
  4. Type in the name of the model, Pre development.
  5. Click Save. The program shows the default template folder. You need to highlight the relevant template.


  6. Click Cairns.xpt for this model.

  7. Click Open. If you save your template files in any other folder, then you need to browse for it and click Open. The window appears and you will be using the tool strips on the top and right side.

Adding a Background Image and Using the Zoom Tool

Next, you are going to add an optional background image as a reference for your subdivision.

  1. Click the New Background Image icon from the top tool strip. The Add Background Image dialog appears.


  2. Click the ellipsis (…) to browse to the folder where you saved the Getting Started tutorial files. For example, C:\XPS\xprafts2013SP1\GettingStarted\Tutorial6. 
  3. Select the file Development.dwg and then click Open.


    You can add images with different extensions. The available file formats are AutoCAD *.dwg, *.dxf formats, ESRI *.shp files, and image files such as *.bmp, *.tiff, *.jpg, and so on. 


    In this tutorial, you will use an AutoCAD file with the extension *.dwg. The entire extent of the drawing is displayed so you will have to zoom into the project area.
     

  4. Click the Zoom In icon from the right tool strip.
     


  5. Drag a rectangle around the project area to zoom in. Alternatively, you can use the scroll button of the mouse to zoom in and zoom out on the background image. You can use the right mouse button to pan apart from the Pan Tool.

Creating Nodes

Now, you are going to create nodes to represent the project area before development.

  1. Select the Node icon  . The cursor changes to
  2. Click the locations where you want to create nodes. In this tutorial, you need to create four nodes as shown in the following image.


  3.  Press Esc to stop creating nodes. You can see that cursor changes to the Pointer tool .

Now, you will create links by connecting the nodes.

  1. From the tool strip, select the Link Tool icon  . The cursor changes to .
  2. Click node 1 and continue clicking all the nodes. When you reach node 4, press the Esc button. Each time you reach a node, the cursor will change to a red cross , that is, you snap the node. You can now see that links have been created.
     \
These links are lagging links, where hydrographs are just delayed without attenuation.

Creating Catchments

You will now create Sub-catchments using the Create Subcatchment tool.

  1. Select the Create Subcatchment icon  from the tool strip. The cursor changes to  .
  2. Digitize the catchment by clicking the mouse. Once you finish, double-click to end.


  3. Make sure that the Lock Catchment icon  is switched off.
  4. Click the catchment polygon. Hover the cursor over the catchment polygon and you will see that the Pointer tool is changed to   when the cursor reaches the catchment centroid. 
  5. Keep the left button of the mouse pressed and move towards node1. Once it reaches the node’s location, the cursor will change to . Release the mouse button, and then from the pop-up menu, select Drain Catchment As and connect catchment as Subcatchment 1.





  6.  Go to the Tools menu and select Calculate Node > Calculate Area. The catchment area is then computed. 



  7. Click OK in the next dialog.

  8. Alternatively, you can measure the catchment area using the Ruler tool   . Click the Ruler icon from the tool strip. Draw the catchment boundary. Once the cursor reaches the starting point, the shape changes to a cross. While moving the cursor, you will see that the Ruler tool measures the Total Distance traversed and as you reach the starting point, the Total Area will be shown.

  9. Double-click node1 to open the Node Control Data dialog.

  10. Click Subcatchment Data to open the Catchment Data dialog.


  11. Click FIRST Subcatchment. You will not use the SECOND Subcatchment in this tutorial.


    You can see that the calculated area (Total Area) is assigned to the catchment.


  12. Enter the subcatchment data. The pre developed area has a Vectored Slope of 0.5% grade, a Manning’s n value of 0.025, and an Impervious value of 0%.


The percentage of Impervious is an indicator for the urbanization of the lot. This value does not affect the volume of rainfall losses. The loss model specified for the catchment will be applied for the whole area, 0.562 ha, regardless of the impervious percentage entered. However, it will be used when routing the instantaneous hydrographs through the non-linear storage reservoirs. Please refer to Equation 8 in the Coefficients B and npage under " General Model Structure" or Chapter 14 – RAFTS theory in the offline help file. The percentage of Impervious will be used as “U” in Equation 8. If you wish to model some part of the catchment with another loss model (says impervious area losses), create a second catchment with the new loss model.

Initial/Continuing Rainfall Loss Model

To model the rainfall losses, you will use the Initial/continuing loss model.

  1. Click Initial/Continuing in the Subcatchment Data dialog box. Select 20l 5C under Init./Cont Losses. If you want to review the data, click Edit.


  2. The loss models included in the template are shown in the Global Databases dialog. Click Edit to review the data for training purposes. 

    The first 20 mm of rainfall is lost, then 5 mm/hr for the remaining of the rainfall event. Click OK to finish entering the data and click Select in the next dialog.

  3. With 20I 5C highlighted, click the Copy Icon  on the top-right of the Subcatchment Data dialog and then click 20I 5C. This copies the data contained in 20I 5C.


  4. From the dialog you can see that the loss model has been copied, click OK on all the dialog boxes until you reach the main window.
  5. Click the Select all nodes icon  , and press Ctrl + V on the keyboard to paste the copied database to all the nodes.

    A loss model should be specified to all the nodes to run the engine.

Reviewing the Rainfall Data

Before you calculate the hydrographs for this project, you need to review the rainfall data that was included in the template.

  1. Click the Job Control icon from the top tool strip. Alternatively, you can click Configuration in the menu bar and select Job Control.


  2. Click the Global radio button under Storm Type. The global storms shown in Stacked Storms are the temporal patterns from ARR volume 2.

    The Routing Increment of 1 min and the Number of Intervals of 4380 min are enough for the longest rainfall event. Note that Number of Intervals should be in an ascending order.
  3. Click Storm Name for 30 min. The Select dialog opens, similar to the rainfall loss global data. A list of all the Rafts Storms included in this template are shown below.


  4. Click Edit to review the storm data.


  5. The Average Intensity of the storm is entered as Direct in this example. You can also select IFD calculation where you need to provide IFD coefficients, which can be derived from ARR1987 guidebook or the BOM website.
    Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) under Design Storm, ARR Standard Zone under Temporal Pattern and Duration are entered using the temporal pattern from ARR volume 2 (the data is stored in the engine). The Average Intensity of rainfall entered is then applied to this temporal pattern.

  6. Click OK, click Select, and then click OK on each dialog to close them all.

Solving Hydrographs

You are now ready to solve for the project hydrographs.

  1. Click the Solve icon from the top tool strip.


    The engine now displays the following dialog, which then closes when the calculations are completed.


  2. Results are written to a file with the extension *.out and has the same name as your project’s name. The result data can be viewed either by displaying in the interface of the software or reading from the text interface.

Reviewing the Graphical Results

  1. Click node1 from the network window to highlight it.
  2. To view the graphs, either:
    • Press F7.
    • Click the Review Results icon.
    • Right-click the node and select View Results from the drop down menu as shown below:


  3. Results for All Storms is displayed with the peak runoffs. You can see that 540 min storm gives the peak runoff value of 0.097 cms for the predevelopment site. To view other storms, select them from the drop down list for storms.


  4. Zoom in by dragging a rectangle around the desired area. The example below shows rainfall and excess rainfall.

     
  5. Right-click on the graph area and select Undo Zoom from the drop down menu to zoom out to the full extent.

     
  6. To close the Review Results window, click the Close button.

Tabular Results and Data Input (XP Tables)

Both the input data and results data can be displayed in tabular format for viewing, editing, and printing. There is one table included in the template but you may modify this table and create a new table.

  1. Click the XP Tables icon from the top tool strip, press F2, or select the XP Tables option from Results menu.


  2. The table name that is already defined and imported from the template appears. Click View.


  3. By default, Critical Storm is displayed. You can select the storm, other data, and other results to view.