This tutorial walks you through the creation of a basic network using link lagging and global storm data. This will give you a basic understanding of how to navigate the environment and build a network. In this model, XPRafts calculates the runoff hydrographs for each sub-catchment, and then combines and lags them down the system.

In this tutorial, you will learn the following:

Loading the Program

  1. Open XPRafts from the Start menu. The default Open File dialog appears.

  2. Select whether to:

    • Open a new database

    • Open an existing database

    • Create a new template

  3. In this example, you will create a new file. Select Open a new database, and then click OK.

  4. Enter the File Name as Tutorial 4.xp and then click Save.

Creating the Network

The Tool Icons from the Toolbar are used to create a network.

Pointer is used to select or move objects, reconnect links, rescale the window, change object attributes, and enter data.
Text Tool is used to annotate the network.
Node Tool is used to create nodes representing physical elements such as manholes, inlets, ponds, or outfalls.

Basin Tool is used to represent storage structures such as retarding basins detention ponds and reservoirs.

Link Tool is used to create single connections between nodes. This may be physical elements or indicative of a connection. For example, pipes, channels, overland flow paths, pumps, orifices, weirs, and so on. Note that this is to specify a Lagging Link.
Channel Tool is used to create routing channels.
Diversions Tool is used to create diversions.
Catchment Tool is used to digitize catchments.
Ruler is used to measures lengths and areas.
Select All Nodes is used to select all the nodes in the network.
Select All Links is used to select all the links in the network.

To create a basic network: 

  1. Click the Link Tool from the Toolbar.

  2. Click on any point in the window to create node 1 and click another point to create node 2. The link joining them will be automatically created.

  3. Click again to make link 2 and node 3. Double-click to end. The cursor will be ready to create another link.

  4. Click again and create link 3 as shown.

  5.  Press the Esc key when you are finished. Now, the pointer key will be active.

    To enter data about the elements, select the Pointer Tool and double-click the element.

  6. If there are more branches in the network, repeat this procedure until all branches are created.
You should not to be concerned if the nodes and links names do not match with those shown in the image above. The names will be changed in the suceeding steps.

Naming the Network

By default, links, and nodes are automatically named as node1, node2… and link1, link2… as you create them in the model. Although it is not necessary to change the node and link names from the default names, changing the names may make them more meaningful to you.

To change the name of links and nodes:

  1. Select node 4 by clicking on it. 
  2. Right-click and select Properties. Alternatively, you may click node 4 then select Attributes from the Edit menu on your toolbar. Then type in the Node Name as Cat A.

  3. Repeat the procedure with other nodes as shown in the following figure.

    The X and Y coordinates displayed depend on the location of the node in the window and may differ from those shown in this example. The layout is a schematic and the actual values are unimportant. However, you can change them at this point if you wish.

  4. You may also wish to change the display attributes at this stage. You may edit the attributes by a group edit as well. Select All Nodes or All Links buttons, and go to Edit > Attributes.

Setting the Global Database Information

Global database information contains all of the relevant data that is shared by various components in the model. It usually pertains to information, such as storm types, infiltration, and other losses. There is also the facility to control your table definition.

  1. Select Global Data in the Configuration menu. Alternatively, you can click the Global Database  icon .

  2. Select Temporal Patterns, and then click the New button. A new field window appears with the name TP#1.

  3.  Change the display name to suit your requirements by either using the backspace key or by selecting Rename. In this example, the name 60min is used.

  4.  While the name is selected, click Edit and enter the data.

    Fraction per time interval is the dimensionless pattern which sums up to 1. For Australian projects, you can specify the temporal pattern zone based on the ARR 1987 and the program will automatically pick up the pattern. This will be explained further in the succeeding tutorials.
  5. Click OK to continue.
  6. To enter the data for a RAFTS storm, select RAFTS Storms from the Global Databases dialog. Select New and enter the name Design100Yr-60min.

  7. Select Edit to open the Storm Data dialog. 
  8. Enter Average Recurrence Interval as 100 years, 
  9. In the Average Intensity box, select Direct and enter 76.3 mm/hr. 
  10. In the Temporal Pattern box, select Reference, then click the box to open the Select dialog. Highlight 60 min from the list and click Select

    XPRafts can estimate the storm intensity from the IFD curves depending upon zones by choosing the option IFD calculation and ARR Standard Zone. You can get the IFD values from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology website.
  11. Enter Storm Duration as 60 (min).

  12. Select OK to continue.
  13. To enter the Initial/Continuing Loss data, select Init./Cont. Losses and then click New and enter the name I=15 C=2.5.

  14. Click Edit.

  15. Enter Initial Loss as 15 (mm). 
  16. Select Absolute and enter the Continuing Loss as 2.5 (mm/hr).
  17. Select OK to exit the Initial/Continuing dialog. 
  18. Select OK to exit the Global Databases dialog.

Job Control Data

  1. Select Job Control from the Configuration menu. Alternatively, you may select the Job Control  icon. Job Control allows you to enter data such as time of simulation and the general model control information.

  2. Enter the Title as Tutorial 4. This name will be used for the result output only.

  3. Select the Simulation Details tab in the Job Control dialog. Enter Start Date and Start Time. The default values 01/01/90 and 00:00 are acceptable for this example.

  4. Select the Job Definition tab once again. Click Global to open the Stacked Storms dialog.
  5. Check the checkbox Use Storm?
  6. Click in the column under Storm Type. Select Rafts in the drop down menu that appears. 
  7. Enter Routing Increment as 1 min.
  8. Enter Number of Intervals as 300. 
  9. Click Storm Name. Select Design 100Yr-60min and then click Select. These steps mean that you will simulate the model from 01/01/1990: 00:00 to 01/01/1990: 05:00 (that is, a duration of 300 minutes).

  10. Click OK to exit the Stacked Storms dialog. 
  11. Click OK to exit the Job Control dialog.

Link Data

  1. Double-click link3 to select the Link between Cat A and Junction.
  2. Enter the LAG time as 2.5 min.

  3. Click OK to exit the Lagging Link dialog.

    A Lagging Link will lag the upstream hydrograph without any attenuation.

  4. With link3 highlighted, select Copy Data from the Edit menu.

  5. Click OK and then highlight the two remaining links by holding the Ctrl key and clicking them.
  6. Select Paste Data from the Edit menu.

Sub-Catchment Data

  1. Open the Node Control Data dialog of Cat A either by: 
    • Double-clicking the node.
    • Highlighting the node with left-click and right-click to select Edit Data.
    • Highlighting with left-click and select Edit Data in the Edit menu.

  2. Click Subcatchment Data, and then click FIRST Subcatchment.

  3. Enter Total Area as 4 ha, Impervious as 23%Vectored Slope as 1%, and Mannings ‘n’ as 0.025.

  4. Under the Rainfall Losses, double-click Initial/Continuing.
  5. Select I=15 C=2.5 and then click Select. Select OK on all dialog boxes to return to the main network window.

    Despite entered percentage of imperviousness, the loss model I=15 C=2.5 selected will be applied to the whole catchment of 4 ha. However, the percentage of impervious area will be used by the engine when routing the instantaneous hydrograph through non-linear reservoir. This will be discussed in more detail later in the tutorial.
  6. Highlight Cat A and select Copy Data from the Edit menu. Now you must select the nodes where you wish to paste the data. In this example, you will paste the data to all the nodes using Select all nodes. You can select multiple nodes by holding the Ctrl key while you select the desired nodes and then select Paste Data from the Edit menu. All the catchment, rainfall data, and so on that are entered for Cat A is now copied into the remaining three nodes.

Saving the File and Solving the Network

To save the file, select Save from the File menu. Alternatively, click the Save  icon on the toolbar.

To solve the network, select Solve in the Analyze menu. Alternatively, click the Solve  icon on the toolbar. If any errors are found, a Notepad screen will appear. You will then need to check the data you have entered before solving again.

Reviewing Results

To review the results for the network, highlight the nodes you wish to review and then select Review Results in the Results menu. Alternatively, click the Review Results  icon after highlighting the nodes. The results are shown as follows:

You can view a maximum of four graphs per page by selecting the drop-down menu at the top of the page. Variables can also be viewed separately or grouped in a single graph. You can zoom in, change the font size, the style of graphs or show legends, and so on by selecting from the drop-down menu.

When you have finished reviewing the results, click the lower cross in the top right hand corner of the Review Results window. This will return you to the network view.

Exiting Program

To exit the program, select Exit from the File menu. Alternatively, click the cross on the right hand corner of the page.