Consequence of Failure analysis predicts the criticality of failure for each asset based on associated properties and spatial interaction with other GIS layers. Typically this analysis is based on the costs associated with each asset failing. If the asset is servicing a heavily populated area and its failure could require widespread reconstruction, then that asset should be assigned a high Consequence of Failure score. 


Each Consequence of Failure is based on one aspect or set of data. A project can contain a library with dozens of COF's which are combined with customized weighting during the Risk calculation.

Consequence of Failures can utilize a wide range of data. Typical data used in COF's include asset attribute data (e.g., pipe diameter) and various GIS data (e.g., locations of streets, hospitals, rivers, etc.).


Create/Edit COF Analysis

To create a new COF, right-click on the Consequence of Failure item in the Analysis tab of the Operation Center and select New.



Then, give the COF an ID and Description (separate the ID and Description with a comma). Click OK.


The Consequence of Failure Wizard will guide you through the following steps:

Step 1: ID, Description and Selection This step lets you choose to either run the COF analysis on the Full Network, a predefined Facility Selection, or by Zone which is defined in asset's Zone field.

Facility Scope

Full Network: Every asset of this type (e.g., gravity main, lateral, manhole) will receive a score for this LOF,

Facility Selection: Every asset of this type (e.g., gravity main, lateral, manhole) that is within the static selection will receive a score for this LOF,

Zone: Every asset of this type (e.g., gravity main, lateral, manhole) that is assigned to the zone selected will receive a score for this LOF. Please note that "zone" is an attribute field for each element type. If there are no values in this field, there will be no options in the zone drop-down menu.


Step 2: Choose a Category InfoAsset Planner has multiple built-in options for interacting with GIS data to create COF's.

See Analysis Categories below for details on each option.


Step 3: Set Parameters - *Category specific, see below for more details

In this step, the data is defined to score each asset's Likelihood of Failure. The interface varies for each category of analysis.

Refer to the Analysis Categories section below for more details on setting the parameters for each category.


Step 4: Calculate Value - In Step 4 every asset in the assessment scope (Step 1) is listed by Facility ID and the value that this asset will be scored on for this consequence. In the following step (Step 5), you can define scoring ranges based on the value in step 4. Please note depending on the parameter type selected in Step 3 the values may be text or numerical. For example, text of material type or value of diameter. Text values will result in discrete ranges while numerical values may be grouped in specific ranges for scoring in Step 5.

Normalize value: Choose a field from the drop-down menu to divide the value by. For example, you might select pipe length to generate a resulting “number of incidents per pipe length” value. Note: This option is not available if the "Value" field contains non-numerical results (like material results shown here). 


Step 5: Set Score Range

Assign consequence  scores based on values from Step 4. Below are two examples of possible scoring scenarios based on numerical or text values. This dialog box shows scoring ranges based on diameter values. You can define the number of classes as well as breaker values to create custom ranges.


This dialog box shows the discrete text values returned from scoring on a text field; in this case, you will assign scores to specific values. The number of classes does not apply when using text values.


Equal Interval, Natural Breaks, and Quantile methods can be used for automatically assigning breaks to ranges of numerical values:

Quantile - Assigns the same number of data values to each class.

Equal Interval - Divides the data values into equal-sized classes.

Natural Breaks - Classes are set where there are large differences in the data values.

Normalize score by - Choose a field from the drop-down to divide the consequence by. The intent of this tool is to allow users to apply business risk exposure logic to the consequence calculation.

For example by choosing the redundancy field containing a value of 2 for all looped and parallel pipes. The consequence will be divided by 2 for all looped and parallel pipes. See Calculate Pipe Redundancy.

Use the Score Chart and Histogram to study the distribution.

Analysis Categories


Attribute - Predict the consequence of failure of each asset based on it's direct attribute data (e.g., pipe diameter).

Select a facility attribute field, or choose other to select any other field. Please note that the options shown here will vary depending on what asset type the COF is for.


Inspection - Although less common as a COF, this category is used to estimate the COF based on any imported inspection data. The fields below specify how scores will be determined from associated inspections for each asset. See below for explanations of each option.

Count: Score assets based on of the total number of all associated work orders.

Type: Score assets based on of the type of inspection associated (Note: If an asset has multiple inspections associated with it, InfoAsset Planner will only use the highest scoring type. The inspection type to score association is set in step 5.)

Status: Score assets based on of the status of inspection associated (Note: If an asset has multiple inspections associated with it, InfoAsset Planner will only use the highest scoring status. The inspection status to score association is set in step 5.)

General Info: Score assets based on of fields in the IMIC_IPInspection table. If this option is selected the "Field" drop-down list must be used. (Note: This layer is the default InfoAsset Planner layer used by the Work Manager Inspection tab. You can add custom fields to this layer if desired.)

Detail Info: Score assets based on of fields in the detail tables for Inspection types. For more information on detail tables and how to use them, please see the Inspection Help page. If this option is selected the "Field" drop-down list must be used.

Use the Query Builder to create a query expression that will refine tasks selected and asset scoring.


Population - Base criticality of assets based on the population density at that location using polygon layers like census data. Population density can be used to define and assess relative consequences of failure for each pipe. An example of this type of consequence would be to compare the relative consequences of a distribution pipe that services a populated urban center compared to a transmission line that crosses a relatively remote and sparsely populated area.  The consequences of potential flooding and likelihood of more customers being affected is sure to be more in the heavily populated area.

Population Density Layer: This is the GIS layer that contains the population data. InfoAsset Planner scores final population density values to each asset based on this field.

Query: This can be used to filter out unwanted parts of the GIS data. In the example above the query will exclude all parcels with an area type of single residential. Click Query Builder to create a query expression that will refine tasks selected and asset scoring.

Population Density FieldThis is the attribute field in the GIS data that contains the population density data.


Work Order - Assign criticality scores based on associated work orders imported for each asset.

Select a work order parameter and filter to calculate consequence of failure.

Count: Score assets based off of the count of all work orders associated.

Type: Score assets based off of the type of work orders associated. (Note: If an asset has multiple work orders associated with it, InfoAsset Planner will only use the highest scoring type. The work order type to score association is set in step 5.)

Status: Score assets based off of the status of work orders associated. (Note: If an asset has multiple work orders associated with it, InfoAsset Planner will only use the highest scoring status. The work order status to score association is set in step 5.)

General Info: Score assets based off of fields in the IMIC_WOWorkOrder table. If this option is selected the "Field" drop-down list must be used. (Note: This layer is the default InfoAsset Planner layer used by the Work Manager Work Order tab. You can add custom fields to this layer if desired.)

Detail Info: Score assets based off of fields in the detail tables for Work Order types. For more information on detail tables and how to use them please see the Work Order Type Manager Section. If this option is selected the "Field" drop-down list must be used.

Use the Query Builder to create a query expression that will refine tasks selected and asset scoring.


Critical Facilities - Use the location of critical facilities (e.g., hospitals) to assign higher COF to nearby or associated assets.

InfoAsset Planner will assign scores based on the distance from each asset to the nearest critical facility, up to an assigned Max Distance set in this interface. Alternately, each critical facility can be assigned directly to assets using a Facility ID Field.

Facility Name: Optional name to be assigned with the facility layer.

Facility Layer: The background GIS layer to be used in the COF

Facility ID Field: When a field is selected, InfoAsset Planner will omit the spatial search and simply apply True/False values based on direct assignment of Assets to critical facilities. Each critical facility (e.g., hospital) can be assigned one asset (e.g., pipe) using this field. Set this value to Blank to use the spatial search.

Max Distance: The maximum searching distance applied to the spatial join. If an asset is not within this distance from a critical facility, it will not receive a value.

Query: This can be used to filter out unwanted parts of the GIS data.

Use the Query Builder to create a query expression that will refine tasks selected and asset scoring.


Pipe Inventory - This is a catch-all category to use any tabular data that can be joined to the assets by a Facility ID. This can include tables both inside and outside of the Project Database.

Using Inventory data to calculate consequences is perhaps one of the most flexible methods of calculation.  It can use any number of attributes or data populated manually by the user or data exported from other software packages. An example would be hydraulic data from a model like InfoSWMM or InfoWater.

Name: Use this to enter a descriptive name for the data being used.

Internal Table: When this option is selected, any default InfoAsset Planner table can be used for scoring the COF. Click the ellipsis to browse the available tables.

External Table: When this option is selected, any external table or layer can be used for scoring the COF. Please note that there needs be a field that links each table entry to an asset ID for a background layer to be used.

Query: This can be used to filter the data source so that only the needed entries are scored. Click Query Builder to create.
a query expression that will refine tasks selected and asset scoring.

Facility ID Field: This drop-down list is used to link the table/layer entries to InfoAsset Planner.
assets.

Target Field: This drop-down list is used to select the values to be scored.


Intersection - Assign higher criticality to assets that intersect GIS layers like roads or streams.

Pipes will be assigned values based on their spatial intersection with a selected GIS layer. The external layer can be any layer with associated geometry (line, polygon, or point).

Values will be assigned as either True/False or the Target Field of the associated layer if the asset crosses within the buffer distance of the layer.

Intersection Layer: The background GIS layer to be used in the COF.

Query: This can be used to filter out unwanted parts of the GIS data. Click Query Builder to create a query expression that will refine tasks selected and asset scoring.

Buffering Distance: The distance that will be used to define an "intersection". In the above example, any asset that came within 200' of a street could count as an intersection.

Target Field:  Use this drop-down menu to specify an attribute field in the GIS layer to use for scoring. If this is left blank, the scoring options will be True/False.
In the example above, the scoring options would be based off the speed of the road which the asset intersects.


Pavement - Use the timing of known pavement projects to score criticality. For example if a pipe fails underneath an area recently paved, it can have costly consequences.

Often times there are penalties for digging up pavement that was recently paved. This analysis option lets you score pipes based on if they might affect pavement and when it was last done. Pipes that are under a road that was recently paved may have a high consequence, while pipes under road that is planned to be replaced next year can be marked as candidates for maintenance. Recall that COF and LOF results can be referenced directly in the Rehabilitation plan decision tree, whether or not they are used in Risk analysis.

Facility Table: Toggle this option to use a field stored in the facility table of
the asset being used in analysis. This assumes you have done the joining of projects
to assets outside of InfoAsset Planner.

External Layer: Toggle this option to base the analysis on the spatial intersection
of an external GIS layer of pavement projects.

Intersection Layer: The background GIS layer to be used in the COF.

Query: This can be used to filter out unwanted parts of the GIS data. Click Query
Builder to create a query expression that will refine tasks selected and asset scoring.

Pavement Date Field:  Use this drop-down list to specify the date that the paving will
be done.


Multi-Parameter - In some cases, the combination of attributes can behave uniquely from sum of the individual attribute scores. This category can assign individual scores for combinations of existing COF's.

The Multi-Parameter is configured to score assets based on the combination of multiple existing COF analyses. Run any supporting COF analyses first, then create a Multi-Parameter COF which combines them with unique scoring.


In the first step, simply select the existing COF results that will be used to calculate the final consequence of failure score.


The example below shows the criteria for several effective COF configurations.  The first two rows are to be assigned a value of 9. In order for a COF to be assigned a value of 9, COF 1 must be greater than or equal to 6, COF4 must be equal to 8, and COF6 must be greater than or equal to 7. Alternatively, the facility could also receive a score of 9 if COF1 is than or equal to 4 and COF4 is greater than or equal to 9.


Managing COF Library

Like many other features of InfoAsset Planner, objects in the expandable tree can be managed by right-clicking to access a pop-up menu.

*Note: Be sure to re-run the COF analysis any time that the underlying input data changes to reflect the latest results.

The following menu appears when any individual consequence of failure in the Operation Center is right clicked:

Description - Add or edit description.

Delete - Deletes the consequence object.

Run - Re-run or edit the existing COF.

Reports - Access the reports that have been generated from the previous run of the selected COF.

Map Display - Create a customized map theme for the selected analysis results.